## Arduino: IDE and Coding

**Learning : Arduino Projects, Arduino Coding, Electronic Circutes**

** Subject: First Application, Light the LED**

[

NOTE:

We are working on Electronic Devices, Voltage, Resistors and other Electronic Parts that may Become HOT due to un-stable current or Wrong Wire Connections..PLEASE BE CAUTIOUS AND TAKE SAFETY NEEDED PROCEDURES.]

**IDE:** IDE is the place or the editor that we can write the code in. Arduino has one that can be Downloaded from [ **www.arduino.cc**]* then from the menu > Software.*

**Coding:** The coding rules and best practes:

- Essentially consist of Two Main Functions: void setup() and void loop().
- Each Code line MUST end with Semicolon ;
- Code block Must be between two Curly-Brackets { }
- Declaration: if we have variavbles we need to declare them before we use them.
__Best-Practice:__we put them at the top of our code page.__Sample:__

int x ;

int y = 50;

const int t = 250 - Our Functions:
__Best-Practice:__Put them between the void setup() and void loop().

SAMPLE:

void led_on ( )

{

digitalWrite(12, HIGH);

} - To put a comments in the code we use double front-slash // use it for one line comments.
__Best-Practice:__Use comments to describe your codes and Functions. - To Comments several lines we use /*

/* all the lines

between it will be

as comments.*/ - IF Statment: if (int x > 10) { your code }
- For-loop: for(int x = 0; x < 5; x++) { your code }

So, I think this is the most important things we have to know to start coding our Arduino. With each practice and project we will work on we will describe coding-lines and commends we use.

I am not sure if i will continue in this way or say “New Learning Curve”, __The Coding and Commanding an Electronic-Bord to Work as my Application says__ ..** THIS PART WAS WHAT LIT THE FUSE IN MY BRAIN. **

**:: ARDUINO PROJECTS LIST ::**

3 | First Project: Coming Soon.. |

2 | Code Editor, coding Blocks, learn Coding |

1 |
Arduino, The Story, Components, Parts and What we will Do? |

To Download the ARDUINO Project [Code and Diagram] files

Click-Here

By: Ali Radwani

## Python: Tower of Hanoi

**Learning : Python **

** Subject: Write a Function to Solve Tower of Hanoi Problem**

**Intoduction:** Tower Of Hanoi is Puzzle Game that has three Vertical Sticks/Pegs Named A, B, C (3 Towers) and we have n number of disks different in diameter soted on top of each other (Large to Small) in Tower A. The Gall is to move all the disks from (A) to (C).

# Tower of Hanoi Puzzel """ Project Name: Tower of Hanoi By: Ali Radwani Date: 13.6.2021 d : Number of Desk fs : From Stick ts : To Stick bs : Buffer Stick """ import os def hanoi_t(d, fs, bs, ts): if d ==1 : print("\n Move Desk 1 From {} To {}".format(fs,ts)) return else: hanoi_t(d-1,fs,ts,bs) print(" Move Desk {} From {} To {}".format(d,fs,ts)) hanoi_t(d-1,bs,fs,ts) print(" Move Desk {} From {} To {}".format(d,fs,ts)) os.system('clear') print('\n\n This is Tower Of Hanoi Project') print(' We are Solving a Three Desk Tower Named 1, 2 and 3, with Three Sticks Named A, B and C ') print('\n Start Solving ...') hanoi_t(3,'A','B','C')

..:: Have Fun with Coding ::.. 🙂

To Download my Python code (.py) files

Click-Here

By: Ali Radwani

## Python: Coffee Consumption – P7

**Learning : Python, SQlite3, Dataset, Pandas, **

** Subject: Create Coffee Consumption Application. **

[

NOTE:To keep the code as simple as we can,We WILL NOT ADDany user input Varevecations. Assuming that our user will Enter the right inputs.]

[ IF THE IS FIRST TIME DOWNLOADING THE CODE FILE, SELECT OPTION 7 FROM MAIN-MENU TO CREATE THE DATABASE]

In this part (Part-7) of **Coffee Consumption App**, we will write a Function to display all Records in the data-base in a table on the screen.

Beginning with formating the table header, we will have the following columns: record Id, Date_time, Coffee_name, Coffee_type, coffee_size, customer_Gender and Rank. Here is the code..

print(‘ ‘*6,’ID’,’ ‘*5,’ Date & Time’,’ ‘*3,’ Coffee Name’,’ ‘*4,’Type’,’ ‘*9,’Size’,’ ‘*4,’ Gender’,’ ‘*4,’ Rank’)

print(‘ ‘*4,’-‘*90)

**Next** we will execute an SQLITE command to fetch all the records. Here is the commands..

c.execute (f”select * from coffee_con where c_id > 1 “)

dataset = c.fetchall()

Also we will using the lookup tables to get the names using the id keys in the coffee_name, coffee_type, coffee_size columns.

**Now**, Using the **for loop** to access all the records and print them on the screen. Here is apart of the code ..

print(‘ ‘*6,'{}’.format(data_id),end=””)

print(‘ ‘*(10 – 5),'{}’.format(data_date),end=””)

print(‘ ‘*(21 – 16),'{}’.format(data_name[0]),end=””)

print(‘ ‘*(14 – len(data_name[0])),'{}’.format(data_type[0]),end=””)

print(‘ ‘*(13 – len(data_type[0])),'{}’.format(data_size[0]),end=””)

print(‘ ‘*(13 – len(data_size[0])),'{}’.format(data_sex),end=””)

print(‘ ‘*(12 – 1),'{}’.format(data_rank))

Here is a screen shot of the code..

OutPut Screen |

What’s Coming: In Part-8 we will write the Function to Edit the records on the Main Data-Base.

..:: Have Fun with Coding ::.. 🙂

Part 1 | Part 2 | Part 3 | Part 4 | Part 5 |

Part 6 | Part 7 | Part – | Part – | Part – |

To Download my Python code (.py) files

Click-Here

By: Ali Radwani

## Python: Random Pixel Color

**Learning : Python, Math**

** Subject: Random Coloring Pixels**

[

NOTE:To keep the code as simple as we can,We WILL NOT ADDany user input Varevecations. Assuming that our user will Enter the right inputs.]

Last week I start reading and studying about “Image Processing”, in some point I was reading about converting an image to Array of numbers, and re-converting that Array back to an Image, at that moment popped into my mind what if we just generate an Array with random numbers and then show it as an Image.

In this article we will write a first simple Function to generate a random numbers presenting the three main color Red, Blue and Green; then storing the numbers in an Array then using matplotlib library to display the Image.

Our Tools: In this post we will use the following:

1. Jupyter-NoteBook.

2. numpy.

3. random.

4. matplotlib.

5. PIL or Pillow.

**Coding** I am user Jupyter NoteBook on samsung Tab S4. First we will do all imports we need as:

from PIL import Image

import numpy as np, matplotlib.pyplot as plt

import random

%matplotlib inline

Now, we will write a Function called rand_color, we will run a nested for loop to generate the Row and Column (width and height) and in/for each row we will generate thee numbers of colors range(0,255) as one pixel and storing them in an array, then we display the Array using:

Image.fromarray and plt.imshow(). Here is the Code ..

Run No.1 |
Run No.2 |

Run No.3 |
Run No.4 |

The above is just 25×25 image with random color pixels, this is the first function using default random, in coming posts we will use some Math variables [such: log,sin], constants [such: pi, golden ratio] to see if we can get a pattern from random.

..:: Have Fun with Coding ::.. 🙂

To Download my Python code (.py) files

Click-Here

By: Ali Radwani

## Python Sorting Algorithm – Heap Sorting -P5

**Learning : Python, Math, Algorithm **

** Subject: Sorting Algorithm, Heap Sort P5**

[

NOTE:To keep the code as simple as we can,We WILL NOT ADDany user input Varevecations. Assuming that our user will Enter the right inputs.]

In Last Parts (2, 3 and 4) we wort the Following Functions:

- Sections Header.
- Main Menu Function.
- Entering/Creating the Array.
- Print-Out or to Display the Array.
- Check If Array in Max-Heap.
- Convert Array to Max-Heap.
- Add Node to Max-Heap.
- Delete a Node from a Max-Heap.

**I****n** this last part-5 we will write the last main Function to aplay the **Heap Sorting Algorithm.**

**Scope of Work:** Deleting a Node from a Max-Heap Array is the main function in sorting an Array using Max-Heap Algorithm, the Deleting is always from the Root Node, So if we delete the most top Node [Root] (and store it in index[0] in a temp_array) then we move the Last Node to it’s position and by doing that we miss the Max-Heap state of the Array, so we convert the array to a Max-heap, then we Delete the Root again until we delete all the elements in the Array.. Here the Algorithm:

Assuming we have a Max-Heap Array:

1. Delete the Root Element, and Store it in index[0] in Temp_array.

2. Move the Last Element in the Array to index[0].

3. If the Array not in Max-Heap then Convert it to a Max-Heap.

4. Repeat Steps 1 to 3 Until length of Array is 0.

In our list of Functions up, we have the three Functions we Need to complete/apply a Max-Heap Sorting:

We Delete a Node using def delete_node(arr,inside):

then in a while loop we call both

def check_if_max_heap (arr,inside): and

def convert_to_max_heap (arr,inside): so let’s see the code..

We finish Max-Heap Sorting Algorithm, ..

..:: Have Fun with Coding ::.. 🙂

To Download my Python code (.py) files

Click-Here

By: Ali Radwani

## Python Sorting Algorithm – Heap Sorting -P3

**Learning : Python, Math, Algorithm **

** Subject: Sorting Algorithm, Heap Sort P2**

NOTE:To keep the code as simple as we can,We WILL NOT ADDany user input Varevecations. Assuming that our user will Enter the right inputs.]

First let’s just remember that in Part-1 we wort the Following Functions:

- Main Menu Function.
- Entering/Creating the Array.
- Print-Out or to Display the Array.
- Sections Header.

**I****n** this Part-3 we will cover another Two important Functions that we need to talk about in our mission to understand the **Heap Sorting Algorithm.**

__First Function__

**Check If The Array is in Max Heap:** After the user Giveing/Entering the Array [Selecting Option 1 in the Menu] we need to Examen/Check if it is in a Max-Heap, to do so we will call the Function def check_if_max_heap(arr, inside): the Function will take Two arguments:

arr : The Array.

inside: Boolean Flag showing are we calling the Function from within another Function or Not.

**Scope of Work:** We will check and compare each Node [__starting from last node in the leaves__] with it’s Parent using this formula parent_index = ((child_index-1)//2) to get the parent index, then comparing the Values of the Child and Parent, If the Child is __GRATER Than__ his Parent we SWAP them. Then going to the Next Child and so-on until the Root-Node. .. Here is the Code ..

for each print statement I am using this code __if not inside :__ then print ..

**Example:** if not inside : print(‘\n The Array is a Max-Heap Array.’)

So if the **inside = True ** then the print code will not work, that’s mean we are calling the Function from inside another function and we just want the return value, the return here will be a boolean True/False as is_max [if the array is in Max-Heap].

__Second Function__

**Convert to Max-Heap:** In this Function we will convert a given Array to a Max-Heap Array. The way this Function is working is by checking/Examining all the Childs starting from the Leaves, and if any Child is Grater than his Parent we do a SWAP. After we Finish, we will call the Function def check_if_max_heap(arr, inside): to check if the Array is in Max-Heap, If NOT we will call the convert Function and so-on until we get the is_max = True from the def check_if_max_heap(arr, inside):. Both Functions def check_if_max_heap(arr, inside): and def convert_to_max_heap (arr,inside): will be run in a while loop until def check_if_max_heap(arr, inside): will return **True.** .. Here is the code for **def convert_to_max_heap (arr,inside):**

And here is the while loop to keep Examining the Array until fully converted to a Max-Heap Array.

# While loop in Option 3 from the Main-Menu, In the main body code.. while not is_max: arr = convert_to_max_heap (arr,True) is_max = check_if_max_heap (arr,True)

We will stop here in this part. In Part-4 we will Add new Node to the Array, and Delete a Node from the Array.

..:: Have Fun with Coding ::.. 🙂

To Download my Python code (.py) files

Click-Here

By: Ali Radwani

## Flowers in my lens..6

Another beautiful flower in taken by Galaxy Note 9. Setup on a table with a coffee Mug. Follow me on **Twitter @h_ta3kees**

## Another sketch challenge: The House

This week sketch challenge @1hour1sketch is to Draw a **Red** **House**, so here is my sketch using pencil, black Pen and watercolour. More Sketches on my Sketch page .. also follow me on Twitter **@h_ta3kees**** **