Archive

Posts Tagged ‘learn’

Arduino: NOT-Gate Circuit

March 24, 2022 Leave a comment

Learning : Electronic NOT-Gate Circuit
Subject: To Build a NOT-Gate Circuit using BC547 Transistor

[NOTE:
W
e are working on Electronic Devices, Voltage, Resistors and other Electronic Parts that may Become HOT due to un-stable current or Wrong Wire Connections..
PLEASE BE CAUTIOUS AND TAKE SAFETY NEEDED PROCEDURES.]

In this Project we will use the BC547 Transistor to build a NOT-Gate circuit, so we will Not use the ADRUINO board.

What we Need

  • 1 2Pin Push-Button.
  • 1 LED
  • 3 Resistors.
  • 1 BC547 Transistor.
  • 1 BreadBoard. [I am using a small 5x7cm]
  • Some Jumper Wires.

Connections

  • Connect the BC547 BasePin to a Resistor Pin1, Then the Pin2 of the Transistor to the Push-Button Pin1.
  • Connect the Push-Button Pin2 to Another Transistor Pin1, Then the Pin2 of the Transistor to BC547 CollectorPin, AND to the Battery(+).
  • Connect the third Transistor Pin1 to BC547 CollectorPin, and the Pin2 of the transistor to LED(+) Pin.
  • Connect the BC547 EmitterPin to the LED(-) Pin by Jumper-wire.
  • Connect the LED(-) Pin to the Battery(-).
Here is the Circuit on the Breadboard
arduino circuit NOT-Gate ali radwani



Run-Time
Since this is a NOT-Gare Circuit then once we connect the Power we can see the LED turns ON, Now if we Press the button and keep pressing, the circuit will be in connecting phase and the LED will tune Off.

Here is a GIF clip of Running Time.



:: ARDUINO PROJECTS LIST ::
[ Click Here to See all ARDUINO Projects ]



ali radwani ahradwani.com python projects codeFollow me on Twitter..

By: Ali Radwani

Arduino: AND-Gate Circuit

March 17, 2022 Leave a comment

Learning : Electronic AND-Gate Circuit
Subject: To Build an AND-Gate Circuit using BC547 Transistor

[NOTE:
W
e are working on Electronic Devices, Voltage, Resistors and other Electronic Parts that may Become HOT due to un-stable current or Wrong Wire Connections..
PLEASE BE CAUTIOUS AND TAKE SAFETY NEEDED PROCEDURES.]

In this Project we will use the BC547 Transistor to build an AND-Gate Circuit on a breadboard, so we will Not use the ADRUINO board.

What we Need

  • 2 2Pin Push-Button.
  • 1 LED
  • 3 Resistors.
  • 2 BC547 Transistor.
  • 1 BreadBoard. [I am using a small 5x7cm]
  • Some Jumper Wires.
  • 3V Battery

Connections

  • Connect Both BC547 to the BreadBoard.
  • Connect Emitter of the First (left) One to the Collector of the second One (Right one). [Use Jumper Wire]
  • Connect TWO Push-Buttons to the BreadBoard.
  • Connect between each BasePin of the BC547 and Pin1 of each Push-Button using a Resistor1&2 [Pin1 of PushButton1 to Pin1 of Resistor1, Pin2 on the Resistor1 to BasePin of BC547.]
  • Connect Pin2 of Push-Button1 to the Pin2 of the Push-Button2.
  • Connect the Push-Button2 Pin2 to a Resistor3 Pin1
  • Connect the Resistor3 Pin2 to the LED(+)Pin.
  • Connect the LED(-)Pin to the First BC547 CollectorPin
  • Connect the Battery (+) to the Resistor3 pin2, and Connect the Battery (-) to the Emitter Pin of Second BC547.
arduino project electronic circuit BC547 ali radw doha ahradwani.con arduino project electronic circuit BC547 ali radw doha ahradwani.con



Run-Time
The Logic of the AND-Gate is if the BOTH Button are Pressed in same time the circuit will close and the LED turn On.

Here is a GIF clip of Running Time.
arduino project electronic circuit BC547 ali radw doha ahradwani.con



:: ARDUINO PROJECTS LIST ::
[ Click Here to See all ARDUINO Projects ]



ali radwani ahradwani.com python projects codeFollow me on Twitter..

By: Ali Radwani

Arduino: Morse Code Blinking


Learning : ARDUINO, Morse-Code, Electronic Circuit
Subject: LED to Blink Morse Code

[NOTE:
W
e are working on Electronic Devices, Voltage, Resistors and other Electronic Parts that may Become HOT due to un-stable current or Wrong Wire Connections..
PLEASE BE CAUTIOUS AND TAKE SAFETY NEEDED PROCEDURES.]


Some days ago I just went through some pages of Morse-Code. Then I got an idea to write a code for the ARDUINO to blink an LED for some letters.

Morse Code: In a basic and easy way, Morse code is a Dots (.) and Dashs (-) to present alphabet characters. So A = .- ; B = -… ; C = -.-. and so on (Morse code table in Wikipedia)

Morse Code Rules:

if we assume a unit is U, then :

  • 1. A Dot is 1U.
  • 2. A Dash is 3U.
  • 3. A Space between a part of the same letter is 1U.
  • 4. A Space between letters is 3U.
  • 5. A Space between words is 7U.

In our project here, the Unite U will be the Delay in Arduino, so the LED will be High for 1U to represent a Dot (.) and will be High for 3U to represent the Dash (-).

What we will Need: I will use a Breadboard, ARDUINO Nano , One Red LED, One 300 ohm Resitro, Jumper Wire.

  • A BreadBoard.
  • ARDUINO Nano.
  • 1 Red LED.
  • 1 Resistor [I will Use 300 ohm]
  • Some Jumper Wire.

Connection:

  • The ARDUINO Nano will be on the Breadboard
  • Connect D13 on Nano to Column 11 on the Breadboard using Jumper-wire.
  • Connect the Resistor on Column 11 and Column 6 on the Breadboard.
  • Connect the LED Anode (+) pin on the Column 6 on the Breadboard.
  • Connect the LED Cathode (-) pin to the Column 4 on the Breadboard.
  • Connect the Column 4 on the Breadboard to the Cathode Row on the Breadboard using Jumper-wire.
  • Connect the Column 17 on the Breadboard (Nano GND pin) to Cathode Row on Breadboard using Jumper-wire.
  • Connect the Column 19 on the Breadboard (Nano 5V pin) to the Anode Row on Breadboard using Jumper-wire.
Image of the Connected Breadboard.
ali radwani ARDUINO Projects morse code



The Coding: First we need to define the Dots and Dashs for each Alphbets, in this example I will do only three carecters for my Name A L I, I will create an array of 0 and 1, 0 is a dot, 1 is a dash, here is the code:
int A [ ] = {0,1} ; // 0 = dot (1U), 1 = dash (3U)
int L [ ] = {0,1,0,0} ;
int I [ ] = {0,0} ;

Here is declearing the Unite, u as Delay time:
int u = 170 ; // 1U = 170 delay.

and here is the Arduino pin I will use:
int ledpin = 13 ;

in the void setup, we will only write one line to set the pinMode(ledpin, OUTPUT)

then I create a function to read the letter array-content

 // CODE: Function to read the letters contents. 

void letter(int c [], byte s)
{
      if (c[s] == 0)   // dot 
        {morse1(ledpin, 1) ;}
      if (c[s] == 1)   // dash 
        {morse1(ledpin, 3) ;}       
}



In this code, I will let the LED to Blink in Morse code saying “ALI” [My Name 🙂 ]. You may add the Morse code in the Application and making the LED to send you message. Code Available in Download Page.

RUN TIME..






:: ARDUINO PROJECTS LIST ::
[ Click Here to See all ARDUINO Projects ]

To Download the ARDUINO Project [Code and Diagram] files Click-Here



ali radwani ahradwani.com python projects codeFollow me on Twitter..

By: Ali Radwani

Arduino: IDE and Coding

November 25, 2021 3 comments

Learning : Arduino Projects, Arduino Coding, Electronic Circutes
Subject: First Application, Light the LED

[NOTE:
W
e are working on Electronic Devices, Voltage, Resistors and other Electronic Parts that may Become HOT due to un-stable current or Wrong Wire Connections..
PLEASE BE CAUTIOUS AND TAKE SAFETY NEEDED PROCEDURES.]



IDE: IDE is the place or the editor that we can write the code in. Arduino has one that can be Downloaded from [ www.arduino.cc] then from the menu > Software.

Coding: The coding rules and best practes:

  • Essentially consist of Two Main Functions: void setup() and void loop().
  • Each Code line MUST end with Semicolon ;
  • Code block Must be between two Curly-Brackets { }
  • Declaration: if we have variavbles we need to declare them before we use them. Best-Practice: we put them at the top of our code page.
    Sample:
    int x ;
    int y = 50;
    const int t = 250
  • Our Functions: Best-Practice: Put them between the void setup() and void loop().
    SAMPLE:
    void led_on ( )
    {
    digitalWrite(12, HIGH);
    }
  • To put a comments in the code we use double front-slash // use it for one line comments. Best-Practice: Use comments to describe your codes and Functions.
  • To Comments several lines we use /*
    /* all the lines
    between it will be
    as comments.*/
  • IF Statment: if (int x > 10) { your code }
  • For-loop: for(int x = 0; x < 5; x++) { your code }


So, I think this is the most important things we have to know to start coding our Arduino. With each practice and project we will work on we will describe coding-lines and commends we use.


I am not sure if i will continue in this way or say “New Learning Curve”, The Coding and Commanding an Electronic-Bord to Work as my Application says .. THIS PART WAS WHAT LIT THE FUSE IN MY BRAIN.

:: ARDUINO PROJECTS LIST ::

3 First Project: Coming Soon..
2 Code Editor, coding Blocks, learn Coding
1 Arduino, The Story, Components, Parts and What we will Do?

To Download the ARDUINO Project [Code and Diagram] files Click-Here



ali radwani ahradwani.com python projects codeFollow me on Twitter..

By: Ali Radwani

Python: Tower of Hanoi

September 15, 2021 Leave a comment

Learning : Python
Subject: Write a Function to Solve Tower of Hanoi Problem

Intoduction: Tower Of Hanoi is Puzzle Game that has three Vertical Sticks/Pegs Named A, B, C (3 Towers) and we have n number of disks different in diameter soted on top of each other (Large to Small) in Tower A. The Gall is to move all the disks from (A) to (C).

 # Tower of Hanoi Puzzel

"""
    Project Name: Tower of Hanoi
    
    By: Ali Radwani
    Date: 13.6.2021
    
     d  : Number of Desk
     fs : From Stick
     ts : To Stick
     bs : Buffer Stick
"""


import os

def hanoi_t(d, fs, bs, ts): 
    if d ==1 : 
        print("\n   Move Desk 1 From {} To {}".format(fs,ts)) 
        return

    else: 
        hanoi_t(d-1,fs,ts,bs) 
        print("   Move Desk {} From {} To {}".format(d,fs,ts)) 
        
        hanoi_t(d-1,bs,fs,ts) 
        print("   Move Desk {} From {} To {}".format(d,fs,ts))
        
os.system('clear')        
print('\n\n   This is Tower Of Hanoi Project')
print('   We are Solving a Three Desk Tower Named 1, 2 and 3, with Three Sticks Named A, B and C ')
print('\n   Start Solving ...')
hanoi_t(3,'A','B','C')

python project code Tower of Hanoi ali radwani



..:: Have Fun with Coding ::.. 🙂

To Download my Python code (.py) files Click-Here



ali radwani ahradwani.com python projects codeFollow me on Twitter..

By: Ali Radwani

Python: Coffee Consumption – P7

September 8, 2021 3 comments

Learning : Python, SQlite3, Dataset, Pandas,
Subject: Create Coffee Consumption Application.

[NOTE: To keep the code as simple as we can, We WILL NOT ADD any user input Varevecations. Assuming that our user will Enter the right inputs.]

[ IF THE IS FIRST TIME DOWNLOADING THE CODE FILE, SELECT OPTION 7 FROM MAIN-MENU TO CREATE THE DATABASE]


In this part (Part-7) of Coffee Consumption App, we will write a Function to display all Records in the data-base in a table on the screen.

Beginning with formating the table header, we will have the following columns: record Id, Date_time, Coffee_name, Coffee_type, coffee_size, customer_Gender and Rank. Here is the code..

print(‘ ‘*6,’ID’,’ ‘*5,’ Date & Time’,’ ‘*3,’ Coffee Name’,’ ‘*4,’Type’,’ ‘*9,’Size’,’ ‘*4,’ Gender’,’ ‘*4,’ Rank’)
print(‘ ‘*4,’-‘*90)

Next we will execute an SQLITE command to fetch all the records. Here is the commands..
c.execute (f”select * from coffee_con where c_id > 1 “)
dataset = c.fetchall()

Also we will using the lookup tables to get the names using the id keys in the coffee_name, coffee_type, coffee_size columns.

Now, Using the for loop to access all the records and print them on the screen. Here is apart of the code ..


print(‘ ‘*6,'{}’.format(data_id),end=””)
print(‘ ‘*(10 – 5),'{}’.format(data_date),end=””)
print(‘ ‘*(21 – 16),'{}’.format(data_name[0]),end=””)
print(‘ ‘*(14 – len(data_name[0])),'{}’.format(data_type[0]),end=””)
print(‘ ‘*(13 – len(data_type[0])),'{}’.format(data_size[0]),end=””)
print(‘ ‘*(13 – len(data_size[0])),'{}’.format(data_sex),end=””)
print(‘ ‘*(12 – 1),'{}’.format(data_rank))

Here is a screen shot of the code..

python project code coffee consumption ali radwani
OutPut Screen
python project code coffee consumption ali radwani



What’s Coming: In Part-8 we will write the Function to Edit the records on the Main Data-Base.


..:: Have Fun with Coding ::.. 🙂


Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5
Part 6 Part 7 Part – Part – Part –


To Download my Python code (.py) files Click-Here



ali radwani ahradwani.com python projects codeFollow me on Twitter..

By: Ali Radwani

Python: Random Pixel Color


Learning : Python, Math
Subject: Random Coloring Pixels

[NOTE: To keep the code as simple as we can, We WILL NOT ADD any user input Varevecations. Assuming that our user will Enter the right inputs.]

Last week I start reading and studying about “Image Processing”, in some point I was reading about converting an image to Array of numbers, and re-converting that Array back to an Image, at that moment popped into my mind what if we just generate an Array with random numbers and then show it as an Image.

In this article we will write a first simple Function to generate a random numbers presenting the three main color Red, Blue and Green; then storing the numbers in an Array then using matplotlib library to display the Image.

Our Tools: In this post we will use the following:
1. Jupyter-NoteBook.
2. numpy.
3. random.
4. matplotlib.
5. PIL or Pillow.

Coding I am user Jupyter NoteBook on samsung Tab S4. First we will do all imports we need as:
from PIL import Image
import numpy as np, matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import random
%matplotlib inline

Now, we will write a Function called rand_color, we will run a nested for loop to generate the Row and Column (width and height) and in/for each row we will generate thee numbers of colors range(0,255) as one pixel and storing them in an array, then we display the Array using:
Image.fromarray and plt.imshow(). Here is the Code ..

ali radwani python code project jupyter
Run No.1
ali radwani python project color pixel random
Run No.2
ali radwani python project color pixel random
Run No.3
ali radwani python project color pixel random
Run No.4
ali radwani python project color pixel random



The above is just 25×25 image with random color pixels, this is the first function using default random, in coming posts we will use some Math variables [such: log,sin], constants [such: pi, golden ratio] to see if we can get a pattern from random.

..:: Have Fun with Coding ::.. 🙂

To Download my Python code (.py) files Click-Here



ali radwani ahradwani.com python projects codeFollow me on Twitter..

By: Ali Radwani

Python Sorting Algorithm – Heap Sorting -P5


Learning : Python, Math, Algorithm
Subject: Sorting Algorithm, Heap Sort P5

[NOTE: To keep the code as simple as we can, We WILL NOT ADD any user input Varevecations. Assuming that our user will Enter the right inputs.]


In Last Parts (2, 3 and 4) we wort the Following Functions:

  • Sections Header.
  • Main Menu Function.
  • Entering/Creating the Array.
  • Print-Out or to Display the Array.
  • Check If Array in Max-Heap.
  • Convert Array to Max-Heap.
  • Add Node to Max-Heap.
  • Delete a Node from a Max-Heap.

In this last part-5 we will write the last main Function to aplay the Heap Sorting Algorithm.

Scope of Work: Deleting a Node from a Max-Heap Array is the main function in sorting an Array using Max-Heap Algorithm, the Deleting is always from the Root Node, So if we delete the most top Node [Root] (and store it in index[0] in a temp_array) then we move the Last Node to it’s position and by doing that we miss the Max-Heap state of the Array, so we convert the array to a Max-heap, then we Delete the Root again until we delete all the elements in the Array.. Here the Algorithm:

Assuming we have a Max-Heap Array:
1. Delete the Root Element, and Store it in index[0] in Temp_array.
2. Move the Last Element in the Array to index[0].
3. If the Array not in Max-Heap then Convert it to a Max-Heap.
4. Repeat Steps 1 to 3 Until length of Array is 0.

In our list of Functions up, we have the three Functions we Need to complete/apply a Max-Heap Sorting:
We Delete a Node using def delete_node(arr,inside):
then in a while loop we call both
def check_if_max_heap (arr,inside): and
def convert_to_max_heap (arr,inside): so let’s see the code..

ali radwani ahradwani.com python project code heap sorting algorithm


We finish Max-Heap Sorting Algorithm, ..

..:: Have Fun with Coding ::.. 🙂

To Download my Python code (.py) files Click-Here



ali radwani ahradwani.com python projects codeFollow me on Twitter..

By: Ali Radwani

Python Sorting Algorithm – Heap Sorting -P3


Learning : Python, Math, Algorithm
Subject: Sorting Algorithm, Heap Sort P2

[NOTE: To keep the code as simple as we can, We WILL NOT ADD any user input Varevecations. Assuming that our user will Enter the right inputs.]


First let’s just remember that in Part-1 we wort the Following Functions:

  • Main Menu Function.
  • Entering/Creating the Array.
  • Print-Out or to Display the Array.
  • Sections Header.

In this Part-3 we will cover another Two important Functions that we need to talk about in our mission to understand the Heap Sorting Algorithm.

First Function
Check If The Array is in Max Heap: After the user Giveing/Entering the Array [Selecting Option 1 in the Menu] we need to Examen/Check if it is in a Max-Heap, to do so we will call the Function def check_if_max_heap(arr, inside): the Function will take Two arguments:
arr : The Array.
inside: Boolean Flag showing are we calling the Function from within another Function or Not.

Scope of Work: We will check and compare each Node [starting from last node in the leaves] with it’s Parent using this formula parent_index = ((child_index-1)//2) to get the parent index, then comparing the Values of the Child and Parent, If the Child is GRATER Than his Parent we SWAP them. Then going to the Next Child and so-on until the Root-Node. .. Here is the Code ..

Ali radwani ahradwani.com python code heap sorting algorithm

for each print statement I am using this code if not inside : then print ..
Example: if not inside : print(‘\n The Array is a Max-Heap Array.’)
So if the inside = True then the print code will not work, that’s mean we are calling the Function from inside another function and we just want the return value, the return here will be a boolean True/False as is_max [if the array is in Max-Heap].

Second Function
Convert to Max-Heap: In this Function we will convert a given Array to a Max-Heap Array. The way this Function is working is by checking/Examining all the Childs starting from the Leaves, and if any Child is Grater than his Parent we do a SWAP. After we Finish, we will call the Function def check_if_max_heap(arr, inside): to check if the Array is in Max-Heap, If NOT we will call the convert Function and so-on until we get the is_max = True from the def check_if_max_heap(arr, inside):. Both Functions def check_if_max_heap(arr, inside): and def convert_to_max_heap (arr,inside): will be run in a while loop until def check_if_max_heap(arr, inside): will return True. .. Here is the code for def convert_to_max_heap (arr,inside):

Ali Radwani python code heap sorting algorithm


And here is the while loop to keep Examining the Array until fully converted to a Max-Heap Array.

 # While loop in Option 3 from the Main-Menu, In the main body code..

    while not is_max:
             arr = convert_to_max_heap (arr,True)
             is_max = check_if_max_heap (arr,True)
                



We will stop here in this part. In Part-4 we will Add new Node to the Array, and Delete a Node from the Array.

..:: Have Fun with Coding ::.. 🙂

To Download my Python code (.py) files Click-Here



ali radwani ahradwani.com python projects codeFollow me on Twitter..

By: Ali Radwani

Flowers in my lens..6


Another beautiful flower in taken by Galaxy Note 9. Setup on a table with a coffee Mug. Follow me on Twitter @h_ta3kees