### Archive

Posts Tagged ‘learn’

## Radwani House Musemun post: 4

Radwani House located in Mshareb district been selected to be saved as a Museum to reflect Qataris Family life in early 19’s. Click Here to see all the Gallery pictures.

Bed-Room: The head covering worn by men is called “Ghutra and Aqal”, and this “Ghutra” in the image is of a relatively expensive type during that period. Sleeping pillows embroidered with old, traditional designs. Read the Story Here

## Python: Grade_2 Math Questions V1

Learning : Python, Math
Subject: Math Questions for Grade-2 V.1

[NOTE: To keep the code as simple as we can, We WILL NOT ADD any user input Varevecations. Assuming that our user will Enter the right inputs.]

In the process of studing with/for my kids [specialy Math] i always need to give them some Questions in [+ -], I need to write the Questions on a paper then they solve it and i check the answers. So I thought if I create an app to solve this Problem.
Application to Do What?

• Select Two random numbers from a given range.
• Select a Math operator [+ -].
• Writing the Question on the Screen.
• Comparing the user input with the real answer.
• Writing a message on the screen acoording to the user answers.

• Start Play the Game. [All Math Lessons]
• Re-set the Numbers Range.
• Register New Kid to Play.
• Questions Like: x (+ -) y = ??
• Questions Like: x (+ -) ?? = y
• Questions Like:
x
y (+ -)
_______________
??

• Exit.
• In this Version (V.1) of the application, there will be some limitations on the Questions Difficulties, Number ranges and type of Questions.

Start Coding
Here is the code for the Main Menu.

``` # Code for Main Menu

os.system('clear')
print('\n\n\t This is a Math Revision Game.',version)
print('\t --------------------------------------------')

print('\n\n\t')
print('\t 1. Start Play the Game. [All Math Lessons]')
print('\t 2. Re-set the Numbers Range.')
print('\t 3. Register New Kid to Play.')
print('\t \n ')
print('\t 5. Questions Like:   x (+ -) y = ?? \n')
print('\t 6. Questions Like:   x (+ -) ?? = y \n')
print('\t 7. Questions Like:      x','\n\t\t\t\t y   (+ -)','\n\t\t\t     ___________')

print('\t ')
print('\t 9. Exit.')

user_select = input ('\n\n\t Select from the Menu. > ')

return user_select

```

Get the Numbers Range
In this Function the user will be asked to Enter the Number range as from and to, we will check if the user Enter a valid input, No space, No Alphabetics.

``` #  Get the Numbers Range

def get_numbers_range () :

"""
Function to get the Number range from the user, we will check if the user Enter
a valid input, No space, No Alphabetics.

return:
nfrom: is the lower number range.
nto  : is the upper number range.
"""

nfrom = check_user_input("\t Enter the Lower Range Number > ","\t ... You Need to Enter a Lower Range Number.") #(input('\n\t Enter the Lower Range > '))
nto = check_user_input("\t Enter the Upper Range Number > ","\t ... You Need to Enter an Upper Range Number.")

if (int(nfrom)) > (int(nto)) :
nfrom, nto =  nto, nfrom

return int(nfrom), int(nto)

```

Check user input
With each user input we will call this Function with two messages, statement message will be the one to gaid the user to What is need to Enter, error message will be display if the user input something wrong or not expected. Then the Function will return back the user input.

``` # check_user_input

def check_user_input(statment_m,error_m):
"""
Function to check on the user input if it is a valid or not.

Arguments:
statmen_m: will be the one to gaid the user to What is need to Enter
error_m: will be display if the user input something wrong or not expected.

Return:
uinput

"""
while True :
print(statment_m,end="")
uinput = input()
if ((uinput) in [" ",""] or (not uinput.isnumeric()) or ((uinput) in schar) or ((str(uinput).isalpha()))):
print(error_m)
else:
break
return uinput

```

Get the Kid Name
A small and short Function to return the user/Kid Name.

``` # Get the Kid Name

def get_kid_name () :

return input('\n\t Enter Your Name > ')

```

Setting and Variabls
This is the first upper part of the application, we just import the random and os also we set some variables.

``` # Variables

import random, os, operator

score1 = 0
good = ['Correct','You are Right', 'Well Done..','Nice..','Excellent..','Amazing..','Good job',' YES .. Keep it up .. ','So Proud of You','Yes .. Another Point for You',]
bad = ['Wrong ..','Sorry .. No!','Try Your Best','No!','No..Think Harder','ooops .. No','Not this Time']
oper_dict = { '+': operator.add, '-': operator.sub,} # '*': operator.mul, }
schar = "@_!#\$%^&*()?/\|}{~,.:'"

nfrom = 0
nto = 0
name = 0
version = 'V.10.2022.R1'
```

Math Question Type-1
This Function will ask the user 10 Questions of Math according to the Numbers Range were the question will looks like: X [+ -] Y = ??, then if the answer is right good message will display on the screen.

``` #  Math Question Type-1 (X [+ -] Y = ??)

def Math_G2_type_1():
os.system('clear')
score =0
for q in range(0,10):
n1 = random.randint(nfrom,nto)
n2 = random.randint(nfrom,nto)
op = random.choice(list(oper_dict.keys()))

if op == '-' :
if n1 ')
print('   ', n1, op ,n2,end='')

ans = check_user_input(" = ","  You Need to Enter an Answer .. ")

if  int(ans) == oper_dict[op](n1,n2):
print('   ',random.choice(good),'   .. ')
score = score +1
else:

return score

```

Math Question Type-2
This Function will ask the user 10 Questions of Math according to the Numbers Range were the question will looks like: X [+ -] ?? = Y, then if the answer is right good message will display on the screen.

``` # Math Question Type-1 (X [+ -] ?? = Y)

def Math_G2_type_2():
os.system('clear')
print('\n\n\t ', name ,' Now try to solve these once\n ')
score =0
for q in range(0,10):
n1 = random.randint(nfrom,nto)
n2 = random.randint(nfrom,nto)
op = random.choice(list(oper_dict.keys()))
if op == '-' :
if n1 < n2 :
n1,n2 = n2,n1

print('\t\t   ',n1)
print('\t\t   ',n2,' ',op)
print('\t\t __________')
ans = int(input('\t\t    '))

if ans in [" ",""]:
else:
if ans == oper_dict[op](n1,n2):
print('   ',random.choice(good),'   .. \n\n')
score = score +1
else:

return score

```

Math Question Type-3
This Function will ask the user 10 Questions of Math according to the Numbers Range were the question will looks like:

X
Y [+ -]
__________
???
then if the answer is right good message will display on the screen.

``` #

def Math_G2_type_3 ():
os.system('clear')
print('\n\n\t ', name ," let's try this.")
print('\t Complete with correct number.\n')
score = 0
for q in range(0,10):
n1 = random.randint(nfrom,nto)
n2 = random.randint(nfrom,nto)
op = random.choice(list(oper_dict.keys()))
if op == '-' :
if n1  n2 :
n1,n2 = n2, n1

print('\t ',n1,op, ' ______ = ', n2)

if ans in [" ",""]:
else:
if n2 == oper_dict[op](ans,n1):
print('   ',random.choice(good),'   .. \n\n')
score = score +1
else:
return score

```

Application Body
In the Application Body itself I use a while loop to call and detect the User input from the menu and using that input to call the corresponding Function. All the codes and functions also the application Body code is on the Source file and can be Downloaded.

I test the code and RUN the app several times, but errors can be found, so next version of this Application will solve any errors also will add more Math Questions Type.

..:: Have Fun with Coding ::.. 🙂

## Arduino: NOT-Gate Circuit

Learning : Electronic NOT-Gate Circuit
Subject: To Build a NOT-Gate Circuit using BC547 Transistor

[NOTE:
W
e are working on Electronic Devices, Voltage, Resistors and other Electronic Parts that may Become HOT due to un-stable current or Wrong Wire Connections..
PLEASE BE CAUTIOUS AND TAKE SAFETY NEEDED PROCEDURES.]

In this Project we will use the BC547 Transistor to build a NOT-Gate circuit, so we will Not use the ADRUINO board.

What we Need

• 1 2Pin Push-Button.
• 1 LED
• 3 Resistors.
• 1 BC547 Transistor.
• 1 BreadBoard. [I am using a small 5x7cm]
• Some Jumper Wires.

Connections

• Connect the BC547 BasePin to a Resistor Pin1, Then the Pin2 of the Transistor to the Push-Button Pin1.
• Connect the Push-Button Pin2 to Another Transistor Pin1, Then the Pin2 of the Transistor to BC547 CollectorPin, AND to the Battery(+).
• Connect the third Transistor Pin1 to BC547 CollectorPin, and the Pin2 of the transistor to LED(+) Pin.
• Connect the BC547 EmitterPin to the LED(-) Pin by Jumper-wire.
• Connect the LED(-) Pin to the Battery(-).
 Here is the Circuit on the Breadboard

Run-Time
Since this is a NOT-Gare Circuit then once we connect the Power we can see the LED turns ON, Now if we Press the button and keep pressing, the circuit will be in connecting phase and the LED will tune Off.

 Here is a GIF clip of Running Time.

:: ARDUINO PROJECTS LIST ::

## Arduino: AND-Gate Circuit

Learning : Electronic AND-Gate Circuit
Subject: To Build an AND-Gate Circuit using BC547 Transistor

[NOTE:
W
e are working on Electronic Devices, Voltage, Resistors and other Electronic Parts that may Become HOT due to un-stable current or Wrong Wire Connections..
PLEASE BE CAUTIOUS AND TAKE SAFETY NEEDED PROCEDURES.]

In this Project we will use the BC547 Transistor to build an AND-Gate Circuit on a breadboard, so we will Not use the ADRUINO board.

What we Need

• 2 2Pin Push-Button.
• 1 LED
• 3 Resistors.
• 2 BC547 Transistor.
• 1 BreadBoard. [I am using a small 5x7cm]
• Some Jumper Wires.
• 3V Battery

Connections

• Connect Both BC547 to the BreadBoard.
• Connect Emitter of the First (left) One to the Collector of the second One (Right one). [Use Jumper Wire]
• Connect TWO Push-Buttons to the BreadBoard.
• Connect between each BasePin of the BC547 and Pin1 of each Push-Button using a Resistor1&2 [Pin1 of PushButton1 to Pin1 of Resistor1, Pin2 on the Resistor1 to BasePin of BC547.]
• Connect Pin2 of Push-Button1 to the Pin2 of the Push-Button2.
• Connect the Push-Button2 Pin2 to a Resistor3 Pin1
• Connect the Resistor3 Pin2 to the LED(+)Pin.
• Connect the LED(-)Pin to the First BC547 CollectorPin
• Connect the Battery (+) to the Resistor3 pin2, and Connect the Battery (-) to the Emitter Pin of Second BC547.

Run-Time
The Logic of the AND-Gate is if the BOTH Button are Pressed in same time the circuit will close and the LED turn On.

 Here is a GIF clip of Running Time.

:: ARDUINO PROJECTS LIST ::

Learning : ARDUINO, Morse-Code, Electronic Circuit
Subject: LED to Blink Morse Code

[NOTE:
W
e are working on Electronic Devices, Voltage, Resistors and other Electronic Parts that may Become HOT due to un-stable current or Wrong Wire Connections..
PLEASE BE CAUTIOUS AND TAKE SAFETY NEEDED PROCEDURES.]

Some days ago I just went through some pages of Morse-Code. Then I got an idea to write a code for the ARDUINO to blink an LED for some letters.

Morse Code: In a basic and easy way, Morse code is a Dots (.) and Dashs (-) to present alphabet characters. So A = .- ; B = -… ; C = -.-. and so on (Morse code table in Wikipedia)

Morse Code Rules:

if we assume a unit is U, then :

• 1. A Dot is 1U.
• 2. A Dash is 3U.
• 3. A Space between a part of the same letter is 1U.
• 4. A Space between letters is 3U.
• 5. A Space between words is 7U.

In our project here, the Unite U will be the Delay in Arduino, so the LED will be High for 1U to represent a Dot (.) and will be High for 3U to represent the Dash (-).

What we will Need: I will use a Breadboard, ARDUINO Nano , One Red LED, One 300 ohm Resitro, Jumper Wire.

• ARDUINO Nano.
• 1 Red LED.
• 1 Resistor [I will Use 300 ohm]
• Some Jumper Wire.

Connection:

• The ARDUINO Nano will be on the Breadboard
• Connect D13 on Nano to Column 11 on the Breadboard using Jumper-wire.
• Connect the Resistor on Column 11 and Column 6 on the Breadboard.
• Connect the LED Anode (+) pin on the Column 6 on the Breadboard.
• Connect the LED Cathode (-) pin to the Column 4 on the Breadboard.
• Connect the Column 4 on the Breadboard to the Cathode Row on the Breadboard using Jumper-wire.
• Connect the Column 17 on the Breadboard (Nano GND pin) to Cathode Row on Breadboard using Jumper-wire.
• Connect the Column 19 on the Breadboard (Nano 5V pin) to the Anode Row on Breadboard using Jumper-wire.

The Coding: First we need to define the Dots and Dashs for each Alphbets, in this example I will do only three carecters for my Name A L I, I will create an array of 0 and 1, 0 is a dot, 1 is a dash, here is the code:
int A [ ] = {0,1} ; // 0 = dot (1U), 1 = dash (3U)
int L [ ] = {0,1,0,0} ;
int I [ ] = {0,0} ;

Here is declearing the Unite, u as Delay time:
int u = 170 ; // 1U = 170 delay.

and here is the Arduino pin I will use:
int ledpin = 13 ;

in the void setup, we will only write one line to set the pinMode(ledpin, OUTPUT)

then I create a function to read the letter array-content

``` // CODE: Function to read the letters contents.

void letter(int c [], byte s)
{
if (c[s] == 0)   // dot
{morse1(ledpin, 1) ;}
if (c[s] == 1)   // dash
{morse1(ledpin, 3) ;}
}

```

In this code, I will let the LED to Blink in Morse code saying “ALI” [My Name 🙂 ]. You may add the Morse code in the Application and making the LED to send you message. Code Available in Download Page.

 RUN TIME..

:: ARDUINO PROJECTS LIST ::

## Arduino: IDE and Coding

Learning : Arduino Projects, Arduino Coding, Electronic Circutes
Subject: First Application, Light the LED

[NOTE:
W
e are working on Electronic Devices, Voltage, Resistors and other Electronic Parts that may Become HOT due to un-stable current or Wrong Wire Connections..
PLEASE BE CAUTIOUS AND TAKE SAFETY NEEDED PROCEDURES.]

IDE: IDE is the place or the editor that we can write the code in. Arduino has one that can be Downloaded from [ www.arduino.cc] then from the menu > Software.

Coding: The coding rules and best practes:

• Essentially consist of Two Main Functions: void setup() and void loop().
• Each Code line MUST end with Semicolon ;
• Code block Must be between two Curly-Brackets { }
• Declaration: if we have variavbles we need to declare them before we use them. Best-Practice: we put them at the top of our code page.
Sample:
int x ;
int y = 50;
const int t = 250
• Our Functions: Best-Practice: Put them between the void setup() and void loop().
SAMPLE:
void led_on ( )
{
digitalWrite(12, HIGH);
}
• To put a comments in the code we use double front-slash // use it for one line comments. Best-Practice: Use comments to describe your codes and Functions.
• To Comments several lines we use /*
/* all the lines
between it will be
• IF Statment: if (int x > 10) { your code }
• For-loop: for(int x = 0; x < 5; x++) { your code }

So, I think this is the most important things we have to know to start coding our Arduino. With each practice and project we will work on we will describe coding-lines and commends we use.

I am not sure if i will continue in this way or say “New Learning Curve”, The Coding and Commanding an Electronic-Bord to Work as my Application says .. THIS PART WAS WHAT LIT THE FUSE IN MY BRAIN.

:: ARDUINO PROJECTS LIST ::

 3 First Project: Coming Soon.. 2 Code Editor, coding Blocks, learn Coding 1 Arduino, The Story, Components, Parts and What we will Do?

Categories: Arduino, Learning, Lesson

## Python: Tower of Hanoi

Learning : Python
Subject: Write a Function to Solve Tower of Hanoi Problem

Intoduction: Tower Of Hanoi is Puzzle Game that has three Vertical Sticks/Pegs Named A, B, C (3 Towers) and we have n number of disks different in diameter soted on top of each other (Large to Small) in Tower A. The Gall is to move all the disks from (A) to (C).

``` # Tower of Hanoi Puzzel

"""
Project Name: Tower of Hanoi

Date: 13.6.2021

d  : Number of Desk
fs : From Stick
ts : To Stick
bs : Buffer Stick
"""

import os

def hanoi_t(d, fs, bs, ts):
if d ==1 :
print("\n   Move Desk 1 From {} To {}".format(fs,ts))
return

else:
hanoi_t(d-1,fs,ts,bs)
print("   Move Desk {} From {} To {}".format(d,fs,ts))

hanoi_t(d-1,bs,fs,ts)
print("   Move Desk {} From {} To {}".format(d,fs,ts))

os.system('clear')
print('\n\n   This is Tower Of Hanoi Project')
print('   We are Solving a Three Desk Tower Named 1, 2 and 3, with Three Sticks Named A, B and C ')
print('\n   Start Solving ...')
hanoi_t(3,'A','B','C')
```

..:: Have Fun with Coding ::.. 🙂

## Python: Coffee Consumption – P7

Learning : Python, SQlite3, Dataset, Pandas,
Subject: Create Coffee Consumption Application.

[NOTE: To keep the code as simple as we can, We WILL NOT ADD any user input Varevecations. Assuming that our user will Enter the right inputs.]

In this part (Part-7) of Coffee Consumption App, we will write a Function to display all Records in the data-base in a table on the screen.

Beginning with formating the table header, we will have the following columns: record Id, Date_time, Coffee_name, Coffee_type, coffee_size, customer_Gender and Rank. Here is the code..

print(‘ ‘*6,’ID’,’ ‘*5,’ Date & Time’,’ ‘*3,’ Coffee Name’,’ ‘*4,’Type’,’ ‘*9,’Size’,’ ‘*4,’ Gender’,’ ‘*4,’ Rank’)
print(‘ ‘*4,’-‘*90)

Next we will execute an SQLITE command to fetch all the records. Here is the commands..
c.execute (f”select * from coffee_con where c_id > 1 “)
dataset = c.fetchall()

Also we will using the lookup tables to get the names using the id keys in the coffee_name, coffee_type, coffee_size columns.

Now, Using the for loop to access all the records and print them on the screen. Here is apart of the code ..

print(‘ ‘*6,'{}’.format(data_id),end=””)
print(‘ ‘*(10 – 5),'{}’.format(data_date),end=””)
print(‘ ‘*(21 – 16),'{}’.format(data_name[0]),end=””)
print(‘ ‘*(14 – len(data_name[0])),'{}’.format(data_type[0]),end=””)
print(‘ ‘*(13 – len(data_type[0])),'{}’.format(data_size[0]),end=””)
print(‘ ‘*(13 – len(data_size[0])),'{}’.format(data_sex),end=””)
print(‘ ‘*(12 – 1),'{}’.format(data_rank))

Here is a screen shot of the code..

 OutPut Screen

What’s Coming: In Part-8 we will write the Function to Edit the records on the Main Data-Base.

..:: Have Fun with Coding ::.. 🙂

 Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5 Part 6 Part 7 Part – Part – Part –

## Python: Random Pixel Color

Learning : Python, Math
Subject: Random Coloring Pixels

[NOTE: To keep the code as simple as we can, We WILL NOT ADD any user input Varevecations. Assuming that our user will Enter the right inputs.]

Last week I start reading and studying about “Image Processing”, in some point I was reading about converting an image to Array of numbers, and re-converting that Array back to an Image, at that moment popped into my mind what if we just generate an Array with random numbers and then show it as an Image.

In this article we will write a first simple Function to generate a random numbers presenting the three main color Red, Blue and Green; then storing the numbers in an Array then using matplotlib library to display the Image.

Our Tools: In this post we will use the following:
1. Jupyter-NoteBook.
2. numpy.
3. random.
4. matplotlib.
5. PIL or Pillow.

Coding I am user Jupyter NoteBook on samsung Tab S4. First we will do all imports we need as:
from PIL import Image
import numpy as np, matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import random
%matplotlib inline

Now, we will write a Function called rand_color, we will run a nested for loop to generate the Row and Column (width and height) and in/for each row we will generate thee numbers of colors range(0,255) as one pixel and storing them in an array, then we display the Array using:
Image.fromarray and plt.imshow(). Here is the Code ..

 Run No.1 Run No.2 Run No.3 Run No.4

The above is just 25×25 image with random color pixels, this is the first function using default random, in coming posts we will use some Math variables [such: log,sin], constants [such: pi, golden ratio] to see if we can get a pattern from random.

..:: Have Fun with Coding ::.. 🙂

## Python Sorting Algorithm – Heap Sorting -P5

Learning : Python, Math, Algorithm
Subject: Sorting Algorithm, Heap Sort P5

[NOTE: To keep the code as simple as we can, We WILL NOT ADD any user input Varevecations. Assuming that our user will Enter the right inputs.]

In Last Parts (2, 3 and 4) we wort the Following Functions:

• Entering/Creating the Array.
• Print-Out or to Display the Array.
• Check If Array in Max-Heap.
• Convert Array to Max-Heap.
• Delete a Node from a Max-Heap.

In this last part-5 we will write the last main Function to aplay the Heap Sorting Algorithm.

Scope of Work: Deleting a Node from a Max-Heap Array is the main function in sorting an Array using Max-Heap Algorithm, the Deleting is always from the Root Node, So if we delete the most top Node [Root] (and store it in index[0] in a temp_array) then we move the Last Node to it’s position and by doing that we miss the Max-Heap state of the Array, so we convert the array to a Max-heap, then we Delete the Root again until we delete all the elements in the Array.. Here the Algorithm:

Assuming we have a Max-Heap Array:
1. Delete the Root Element, and Store it in index[0] in Temp_array.
2. Move the Last Element in the Array to index[0].
3. If the Array not in Max-Heap then Convert it to a Max-Heap.
4. Repeat Steps 1 to 3 Until length of Array is 0.

In our list of Functions up, we have the three Functions we Need to complete/apply a Max-Heap Sorting:
We Delete a Node using def delete_node(arr,inside):
then in a while loop we call both
def check_if_max_heap (arr,inside): and
def convert_to_max_heap (arr,inside): so let’s see the code..

We finish Max-Heap Sorting Algorithm, ..

..:: Have Fun with Coding ::.. 🙂