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Python: Applications Main Menu

January 29, 2020 Leave a comment


Learning : Application Main Menu
Subject: Main Menu Template

In some of my applications often I start writing codes to create a Menu for some parts in the app. Now in this post we will write a simple general Main Menu Template, to keep the screen prompt waiting for the user we use while True, and to exit we just use return . Here is the code ..

 
'''
Date: 10.1.2020
By: Ali Radwani.  www.ahradwani.com

Main_Menu Function 
'''
import os

def main_menu():

    """
    Template Function to help in creating a Menu for the application.

    You can change the names and functions must be defined.
    """
    while True:
        os.system("clear")
        print('\n ===========[ MENU NAME]=============')
        print('  --------------------------------------')
        print(' 1. Function-1 Name.')
        print(' 2. Function-2 Name. ')
        print(' 3. Function-3 Name')
        print(' 9. Exit')
        uinp= input('\n Enter your Selection: ')

        if uinp == '1':
            Function_1_Name()
        elif uinp == '2':
            Function_2_Name()
        elif uinp == '3':
            Function_3_Name()
        elif uinp =='9':
            return
        else:
            print('\n  Please select from the Menu.'




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By: Ali Radwani




Python: SQlite Project – P2

January 23, 2020 Leave a comment


Learning : Python and Sqlite3
Subject: Sqlite3, Database functions ” Employee App” P2

In Part1 of this project (Click to Read) we create the database and set the connection, also we create an Employee table with very basic fields and also we wrote a dummy_data() function to Insert some records into the table. And to make the application usable we wrote the Main-Men function and we test it with selecting to display the records that we have.

Today we will write other functions from our Menu. INSERT NEW EMPLOYEE: To Insert new employee we will ask the user to input or to fill the fields we have in our table such as First Name, Last Name and the Salary. .Let’s see the code ..

 # Insert Function

def insert_emp ():
   
    os.system("clear")
    print("\n\n ======== INSERT NEW RECORD ========")
    if input("\n Do you want to enter new employee data press. (y,n) ") in ["Y","y"] :
        f_name = input("    Enter the first name: ")
        l_name = input("    Enter the last name: ")
        p_pay = input("    Enter the salary: ")

        c.execute ("INSERT INTO emp (fname,lname,pay) VALUES(:fname,:lname, :pay)",{"fname":f_name,"lname":l_name, "pay":p_pay})
        db_conn.commit()
        print(input ("\n  One record has been Inserted. .. Press any key .. ."))
    else :
        print(input ("\n  Ok .. you don't want to enter any data. .. Press any key .. .")) 


So, if we select to Insert a new Employee and we Enter First name as : Jacob Last Name as: Noha also we we set the salary to 3200 and press Enter, as in this page ..

Then if we select to show all data we have in the database, we can see the new record added..



DELETE AN EMPLOYEE: To Delete or remove an employee from the database, First we will print-out all the records on the screen and ask the user to enter the ID_ number of the employee he want to delete. As shown here ..

In the above example we select ID number 3 to be deleted and press enter, the system will show the record and ask to confirm the deletion and wait for ‘Y’ to be pressed, then the record will be deleted.
..Here is the code..


In this post we cover the INSERT AND DELETE of the records from the database, in the next post we will cover the SEARCH AND EDIT Functions also some search conditions like salary range and group-by command.



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By: Ali Radwani




Python: SQlite Project – P1

January 21, 2020 1 comment


Learning : Python and Sqlite3
Subject: Sqlite3, Database functions ” Employee App” P1

One of the most important thing about writing applications is to save or store some Data for later use. This data could be simple as setting information or basic user information or can be a full records about something you need to keep, such as health data, or employee contacts or other projects data. To store a huge data we use a Data-Base, some databases are free and open to be downloaded from the internet, one of them is SQLITE3, in Python we can use the Sqlite for small and personal projects. In this post We will use the Sqlite to write a simple project for Employees.

As that our goal is to learn how to use Sqlite and python code to track our employees, and to keep every thing as simple as we can, we will collect only three piece of information that’s will be First Name, Last Name and the Salary.

Functions: In any application there must be several functions to complete our works and tasks that we need to perform, in our Employee System we need to perform these tasks:

1. Show the Data we have.
2. Insert New Employee.
3. Delete an Employee.
4. Editing Employee information.
5. Search for Employee.

This is the most important functions in any application, we will start working on the system and see how things goes on.

First we MUST Creating the data base and set the connection, here is the code to do this and we will call our database as test.db.

 # Create the database. 

import sqlite3, os

db_conn = sqlite3.connect ("test.db")    # set the data-base name

c = db_conn.cursor()  # set the connection


To create the Employee table we will write this code and run it only ONE Time.

 # Create the Employee Table. 

def create_tabels_() :    # to create tables.

    # employee table
    sql_s= "CREATE TABLE if not exists emp (emp_id INTEGER PRIMARY KEY AUTOINCREMENT,
fname text,lname text, pay integer)" c.execute(sql_s) db_conn.commit() print(input('\n .. Employee TABLE created.. Press any key .. '))


Since we are learning and playing with our code, we may need to drop the table for some reasons, so here is the code to Drop the table we will re-call the function if we need-so.

 # Function to DROP a Table. 

def drop_table(tname):

    c.execute("DROP TABLE {}".format(tname))
    db_conn.commit()


Now after the creating of the Table we need to feed it with some data so we can see the records. To do so we will run a function called dummy_data.

 # Function to INSERT Dummy data into the Employee Table. 


def dummy_data():
    """
        This Function will Insert 4 Dummy rows in the temp table, first record will set the emp_id to 1, the other
        record the emp_id will be AUTOINCREMENT.

        This Function to be run one time only.

    """
# First record will have the emp_id set as 1, other records will be AUTOINCREMENT.
    c.execute ("INSERT INTO emp (emp_id, fname,lname,pay) VALUES(:emp_id, :fname,
:lname, :pay)",{"emp_id":1,"fname":"James","lname":"Max", "pay":"2000"}) c.execute ("INSERT INTO emp (fname,lname,pay) VALUES(:fname,:lname, :pay)",
{"fname":"Robert","lname":"Ethan", "pay":"1500"}) c.execute ("INSERT INTO emp (fname,lname,pay) VALUES(:fname,:lname, :pay)",
{"fname":"Jack","lname":"Leo", "pay":"890"}) c.execute ("INSERT INTO emp (fname,lname,pay) VALUES(:fname,:lname, :pay)",
{"fname":"Sophia","lname":"Jack", "pay":"320"}) db_conn.commit() print(input('\n Dummy Data has been INSERTED\n\n .. Press any key .. '))


Main Menu To use the application we need a Menu to jump between the tasks in the app. Here is the Main-Menu, it will return the user selection.

 # The Main Menu. 

def menu():
    os.system("clear")
    print("\n\n      ::: The Menu :::")

    print("   1. Show the Data.")
    print("   2. Insert a New  Employee.")
    print("   3. Delete an Employee.")
    print("   4. Edit/Change employee data. ")
    print("   5. Search.")
    print("   6. Setting.")
    print("   7. Data-Base Information.")
    print("   9. Exit. ")

    uinput = input("\n     Enter a selection: ")

    return uinput


Here is the loop for the Menu and the user selection until (9. Exit) will be selected.

 # The Main Menu. 

while True :

    uinput = menu()

    if uinput == '1' :
        show_data()

    elif uinput =='2' :
        insert_emp ()

    elif uinput =='3' :
        delete_record()

    elif uinput =='4' :
        print("Edit")

    elif uinput =='5' :
        search_emp()

    elif uinput =='6' :
        setting_menu()

    elif uinput =='7' :
        #print("DataBase Information.")
        get_db_info()

    elif uinput =='9' :
        break

    else: # If the user select something out of the menu (Numbers or Character)
        print("  You need to select from the list")


Now we remember that we run the dummy_data() function (above) so we have four records in our Employee Table, so if we want to see the records we will select first option in the Main Menu: 1. Show the data. this will call a function called show_data() as in this screen shot.



The screen prompt will wait for an input of the number that present the task we want. So if we select No. 2 then we will get all the records in the table as this .. .



And here is the code behind this function..


Done with Part 1, in part 2 we will cover more functions to Search and Add records to the Table.



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By: Ali Radwani




Python: My Fake Data Generator P-7

January 19, 2020 Leave a comment


Learning : Python: Functions, Procedures and documentation
Subject: About fake data P-7: (Fake File Name)

In this post we will write a function to generate a file name. Each file name consist of two part, first one is the name which present (or should present) a meaning part, then there is a dot (.) then mostly three characters showing the file type or extension.

Scope of work: Our files names will have 4 syllables all to gather will be one file name. Each syllables will be loaded in a variable as shown ..
1. fext: for Files extensions such as: (doc, jpeg, pdf, bmp …. and so on)
2. name_p1: Is a noun such as (customers, visitors, players .. . and so on )
3. name_p2: will be an nouns, adjective or characteristics such as (name, index, table .. .. and so on)
4. Then we will add a random integer number between (1,30) to give the file a version, or a number.

All parts or syllables will be as one file name.

Let’s Work: First we need to load the File name syllables from the json file called : file_dict.json

 # Loading the json from a url 

import json , requests, random

fname = "https://raw.githubusercontent.com/Ali-QT/Ideas-and-Plan/master/file_dict.json"

def call_json_url(fname):
    """
    Function to load the json file from URL.
    Argument: str :fname
    
    Return : dict: data
    """
    req = requests.get(fname)
    cont = req.content
    data = json.loads(cont)
    return data

fdict = call_json_url(fname)

# Save each syllables into variable. 
f_ext = fdict["fext"]
f_p1_name = fdict["name_p1"]
f_p2_name = fdict["name_p2"]


Now we will write the function that will generate the file name:

 # Function to generate the file name 

def generate_fname():
    """
    Function to generate a Fake files name.
    
    File Name consist of four syllables, Two names, a random number and an extension.
    First two syllables of the file name will be selected randomly from a dictuenary stored in a json       file.
    
    Return : str : f_file_name

    To read the information key in the json file use this code.
    ------ CODE TO READ DATA-SET INFORMATION --------------
     	for each in fdict["information"]:
          print(each,":",fdict["information"])

    ---END OF CODE ------------------------------------------
    """
    fp1 = (random.choice (f_p1_name)["n_p1"])
    fp2 = (random.choice (f_p2_name)["n_p2"])
    fp3 = (random.choice (f_ext)["ext"])

    f_file_name = (fp1 + "_" + fp2 + "_" + str(random.randint(1,30)) + "." + fp3)

    return f_file_name


Last thing we just will call the function for X numbers of files Name we want.

 # Generate 15 file Name. 

for x in range (15):
    generate_fname()

[Output]:

 
kids_name_15.ico
speakers_list_1.asp
cars_photos_27.csv
students_database_26.xml
kids_details_27.html
animals_index_10.mov
speakers_parameters_17.csv
drivers_name_8.doc
males_attributes_16.mov
players_sketches_11.py
animals_sketches_3.wav
cars_details_12.css
animals_list_17.txt
flowers_parameters_4.doc
players_database_28.log





:: Fake Function List ::

Function Name Description
Color To return a random color code in RGB or Hex.
Date To return a random date.
Mobile To return a mobile number.
Country To return a random country name.
City To return a random City name.
ID To return X random dig as ID.
Time To return random time.
Car’s Brand
file_name file name: list for fake file names.
Creatures Random animal names of a certain type: Mammals, Birds, Insect, Reptiles
Foods To return a random list of foods



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By: Ali Radwani




Python: My Fake Data Generator P-6

December 26, 2019 1 comment


Learning : Python: Functions, Procedures and documentation
Subject: About fake data P-6: (Fake Food List)

In the last post the function we create def get_animal_name() get it’s data or let’s say select a random animal names from a dictionary data-set after loading the data from json file through URL, and I upload the Python functions on my Download Page so you can use it. Also I am working on standardizing my data-sets json file and adding information key for each file.

In this post we will write the code to print-out a random selected Food. The function will ask the user if he/she wants random list of Fruit, Vegetables or Meals. The Food data-set is growing up and i am adding more items to it, from the last update, the Meals contains: breakfast from UK, France and USA and Planning to add Dinners and Lunches recipes from more countries.

Let’s Start .. First we will load the json file, here is the code..

 #Calling and loading the json data-set file 

 #Importing libraries
import json , requests, random 


fname = "https://raw.githubusercontent.com/Ali-QT/Ideas-and-Plan/master/foods.json"

def call_json_url(fname): 
 #    """ 
    Function to load the json file from URL. 
    Argument : str  : fname 
    return   : dict : data 
    """ 
    req = requests.get(fname) 
    cont = req.content 
    data = json.loads(cont) 
    return data  # retuning the data-set

data = call_json_url(fname)


Now, we have several other functions in this application, first we will list them and then we will see the code in each one.
So here is the list:

  • get_type_index (adata,akey,subkey,aval)
    Function to return a list with index numbre of akey (atype).
    Argument: dic : adata, str : atype
    Return : list : ind_list
  • get_f_or_v(adata,atype)
    Function to print-out the Fruits or Vegetables as the user ask for.
    Argument: dict : adata, str : atype
  • get_meals (adata)
    Function to print-out the Meal as user will select. The user can select the Type of Meal: Breakfast, Dinner and Lunch. Also the user can select the countries of the Meals.

    Argument: dict: adata

  • def mmenu()
    This is the main menu to help the user to select whatever he/she want to be ptint-out.

Main Menu: Very short easy menu of four selection number as following:

 #The menu function


def mmenu() :
    """
        This is the main menu to help the user to select whatever want to be ptint-out.
    
    
    """
    print('\n\n  In the Food data-set we have several keys, here they are:')
    print('  Fruits, Vegetables and Meals. This application will select a random items\n  of your selection to print it on the screen.')
    print('  also you can select the number of items you want.\n ')
    print('  First, What type of Food do you want? ')
    print('   1. Fruits.')
    print('   2. Vegetables.')
    print('   3. Meals')
    print('   4. To exsit enter Q or q')

    ft = input('  Select one item:')
    if ft =='1' :
        get_f_or_v(data,'1')

    elif ft =='2' :
        get_f_or_v(data,'2')
    elif ft == '3' :
        get_meals (data)
    elif ft in ['q','Q']:
        print('Close')
        return 'q'
    else :
        print('\n   We only have three items') 
      


If the user select (1 or 2 ), then we will call the get_f_or_v(data,the user selection), the first argument is the data-set, the second one is the user selection between Fruit, Vegetables or Meal. Here is the function ..

 #Calling and Menu 

def get_f_or_v(adata,atype):
"""
       Function to print-out the Fruits or Vegetables as the user ask for.
       Argument:   dict   :  adata
                     str  :  atype      
    """
    if atype == '1': ft = 'fruits'  
    else: ft = 'vegetables'
    fts = len(adata[ft])
    while True :
        s = input('\n  You select {}, we have list of {} {}, So how many\n  {} you want to print: '.format(ft,fts,ft,ft))
     
        if int(s) < fts :
            break
        else : 
            print('  Enter a number in range 0 to {}.'.format(fts))
    print('Random {} names are:'.format(ft))
    for x in range (int(s)) :
        ind = random.randint(1,fts) 
        print('   ',adata[ft][ind]['name'])
    
    input('\n    ... Press any key ... ')


Last function we will see here is to get random Meals, I am loading the data from a json file that i create, for-now we have a breakfast only from UK, USA and France. If the user select the Meals from first menu, then another short menu will pop-up here it is ..

 #Calling get Meals 

def get_meals (adata) :	
	    """
	        Function to print-out the Meal as user will select. The user can select the Type of Meal: Breakfast, Dinner and Lunch.  
	        Also the user can select the countries of the Meals. 
	        
	        Argument:    dict: adata
	    """
	
    ft = 'meals'
    fts = len(adata[ft])
	 
    while True :
        s = input('\n  You select {}, we have list of {} {}, So how many\n  {} you want to print: '.format(ft,fts,ft,ft))
     
        if int(s) < fts :
            break
        else : 
            print('  Enter a number in range 0 to {}.'.format(fts))
        
    print('\n  For Meals we have Breakfast from three counties:')
    print(' 1. UK.')
    print(' 2. USA.')
    print(' 3. France.')
    co = input(' Select a country:')
    if co == '1' : co ='UK'
    elif co == '2' : co ='USA';
    else : co ='FR' 
          
    ind_list = get_type_index(adata,ft,'country',co) 
    
    for x in range (0,int(s)):
        ind = random.choice(ind_list)
        print(adata[ft][ind]['name'],'is a ', adata[ft][ind]['time'],'from ',adata[ft][ind]['country'])
  
    input('\n    ... Press any key ... ')


Notes that in def get_meals() I use a hard-coded keys for the menu. I am working on a function to read any json file and get a list of all keys and sub-keys in any level, then giving the user the ability to walk-through all the data. This will be in coming post.



:: Fake Function List ::

Function Name Description
Color To return a random color code in RGB or Hex.
Date To return a random date.
Mobile To return a mobile number.
Country To return a random country name.
City To return a random City name.
ID To return X random dig as ID.
Time To return random time.
Car’s Brand
file_name file name: list for fake file names.
Creatures Random animal names of a certain type: Mammals, Birds, Insect, Reptiles
Foods To return a random list of foods

Done



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By: Ali Radwani




Python: My Fake Data Generator P-5

December 22, 2019 2 comments


Learning : Python: Functions, Procedures and documentation
Subject: About fake data P-5: (Fake Animal list)

Although I call this a Fake Animals list, but the names are for real animals, I am creating a json file fill of animals, each has name and type, also I add a key called information where I am giving a short summary about the data-set. Also I upload the data-set to my account in GitHub, so we can load the json file using Python requests library. The data-set will be updated frequently by adding more animals.

Standarizing: I will try to create all my data-sets with a standard information key, this key will show the following:

  • Date: Will show the data-set crating date.
  • Last Update: Will show the last update of the data-set file.
  • Creator: Will be my name.
  • Desc: Is a short description about the data-set.
  • Legal: Is the copyright and the limits of using this data-set

To access this part of the data set you can run this code ..

 # Function to print-out the information key in the data-set

def get_info(adata):
    print('\n Information about Creatures data-set.')
    for each in adata['information']:
        for k in each.keys():
            print(' ', k + ": " + each[k])


Creatures data-set:This data set is containing the name of animals and their types, animal types are: mammals | insects | birds | reptiles. Our function def get_animals() will take three arguments: the data, the type of animal we want and the size, and it will return a list of animals names.

Here is the code. .

 # Function return a list of random animals names.


def get_animals(adata, atype, dsize):
    """
     Date: 17/12/2019
        Creator : Ali Radwani
        Function to return  X numbers of animal names. The data-set contain animals with
        four categories:
            - Mammals
            - Birds
            - Insect
            - Reptiles
    :param : dict: adata:
    :param : str:  atype:
    :param : int:  dsize:
    :return: list : t_names
    """
    t_names = []
    t_ind_list = get_type_index(adata,atype)

    t_size = len(t_ind_list)
    if dsize < t_size:
        for x in range (dsize):
            t_names.append(data['animals'][random.choice(t_ind_list)]['name'])
    else:
        print('\n  The {} data-set is less than data size you ask for. Maximum size is {} {}.'.format(atype,t_size,atype))

    return t_names


And here is the out-put ..



:: Fake Function List ::

Function Name Description
Color To return a random color code in RGB or Hex.
Date To return a random date.
Mobile To return a mobile number.
Country To return a random country name.
City To return a random City name.
ID To return X random dig as ID.
Time To return random time.
Car’s Brand
file_name file name: list for fake file names.
Creatures Random animal names of a certain type: Mammals, Birds, Insect, Reptiles

Done



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By: Ali Radwani




Python: My Fake Data Generator P-4

December 19, 2019 3 comments


Learning : Python: Functions, Procedures and documentation
Subject: About fake data P-4: (Fake Dates)

The fourth function of our Fake Data Generator will be the date function, from it’s name this one will generate a FAKE Date in yyyy/mm/dd format. The function will have one argument (go_back) for range, the max-limit is current date (today) and mini-limit will be (1/1/1900), if the user did’t pass any thing for (go_back) then the range is (from current to 1/1/1900) and if the user pass (X) then the range will be ((current date) to current – X_YEARS). Also in dates we need to take care of Leap Years, In leap year, the month of February has 29 days instead of 28. To solve this in our function we can use two ways, first one (the easy way) we know that we are generating a random numbers for months and days; so we can say if the month is February, then days can’t be more than 28. But if we want this thing to be more realistic we need to add more conditions such as :
1. The year can be evenly divided by 4.
2. If the year can be evenly divided by 100, it is NOT a leap year, unless the year is also evenly divisible by 400. Then it is a leap year (February has 29 days).



'''
10/12/2019
By: Ali Radwani
To get Fake Date.

'''

import random, datetime

def fdate(go_back = 0): 
    """      
        ###   Fake Date Generator V.01  ###
        Date: 10.12.2019, By: Ali Radwani

        This function will generate and return a fake date in string format.
        The function accept one int argument go_pback.
        If go_past = X, and current year - X is less than 1900 then
        the range of FAKE time will be (current year to current year - X).
    
        If NO argument passed to the function, then default limit set to 1900. 

        Default limits:  Date are from current (today) and back to 1900.

        Import: random, datetime
    
        Argument: int : go_back to set the upper limit of the date
        
        Return: str: dd/mm/yyyy  

    """

    # Get current year. 
    c_year = datetime.datetime.today().year

    # set the maximum year limit.
    if go_back > 0 :
        max_y_limit = c_year - go_back
    else :
        max_y_limit = 1900

    if max_y_limit < 1900 :
        max_y_limit = 1900

    yy = random.randint(max_y_limit, c_year)

    mm = random.randint(1,12)

    if mm in [1,3,5,7,8,10,12] :
        dd = random.randint(1,31)
    elif mm in [4,6,9,11]:
        dd = random.randint(4,30)

    else :
        # IF the month is February (2) 
        if (yy % 4 == 0 ) or ((yy % 100 == 0)and (yy % 400 == 0)):
            # It is a leap year February has 29 days.
            dd = random.randint(1,29)

        else : # it is NOT a leap year February has 28 days.
            dd = random.randint(1,28)

    d = (str(dd) +'/'+ str(mm)+'/' + str(yy))
    
    return (str(dd) +'/'+ str(mm)+'/' + str(yy))


# To check the output.
for x in range (30):
    print(fdate())


<
Here is a screenshot of the code, also available on the Download Page . . .



:: Fake Function List ::

Function Name Description
Color To return a random color code in RGB or Hex.
Date To return a random date.
Mobile To return a mobile number.
Country To return a random country name.
City To return a random City name.
ID To return X random dig as ID.
Time To return random time.
Car’s Brand
file_name

Done



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By: Ali Radwani